ヒールアンドトゥって何で必要なのか? 上手なやり方を詳しく解説!

540957

ヒールアンドトゥというテクニック

別の機能のペダルを一緒に踏んでみたりします

ヒールアンドトゥというのはヒール(かかと)でアクセルを踏む時にトゥ(つま先)でブレーキを踏んでいるテクニックのことをいいます。と無理やりに順番通りに説明するとなんだか分かりにくくなりますが、実際はトゥでブレーキを踏む方が先です。

そうしながらアクセルを踏むというか煽る訳です。ブレーキを掛けて減速した時にシフトダウンをしたくなりますから、その時に、エンジン回転数を適切に合わせるためにすることです。こうすればエンジンのトルクのおいしいところを使って走り続けられます。

▼関連記事 エンジンのトルクをどう捉える、おいしい使い方と回転数

速いコーナーリングのためには必要なテクニック

アクセルを煽るのは便宜的にヒールと表現されていますが別に他のところを使えるのならばどこでも構いません。トゥがブレーキから離れては困るのでどこでもとはいっても足のどこかになるとは思います。

コーナーリングで使う技術といえますが、前方の車両に詰まって速度を落としたい時にスムースにシフトダウンしたい時などにも使えます。こちらはそんなに意味がある行動には思えませんが、とりあえずやったほうがスムースではあるように思います。

ただしMT(マニュアルトランスミッション)車限定

そしてもちろんクラッチを操作するMT車だけのテクニックです。またしっかりブレーキをコントロールできないならばやるべきではない方法でもあります。ブレーキングには自信ありでしょうか。

できるブレーキングって?

基本はしっかりブレーキが踏めること

アクティブセーフティトレーニング(レーシングテクニックなどでない日常の運転の中で安全に寄与するテクニックを学ぶ場所)ではまずしっかり全力でブレーキを踏めるかどうか試してみるプログラムがあります。アンチロックブレーキ(A.L.B)を作動させられない人が多くいます。

▼関連記事 交通事故を回避するためのテクニックとトレーニング、事故を起こさないために必要なこと

ブレーキとステアリングコントロール

例えA.L.Bが働かなかったとしても、しっかり踏めないよりは停止することだけを考えたらロックした方がましです。ロックすると何が困るかといえばステアリングを操作しても何も反応しなくなることです。

今の車は電子制御でロックしそうになるとブレーキを細かく解除してブレーキロックは起きません。いずれにせよブレーキはドカーンと踏めることのほうが大切で電子制御のお蔭でそれでもコントロールまで失わないようになっています。

ブレーキは曲がるために重要

ブレーキはしっかり踏めることが基本ですが、もう少し上手にブレーキが使える人はどのような操作をしているのでしょうか。いまお話しているのはフットブレーキを使うことですが、例えエンジンブレーキであっても車に何らかの形で制動が加われば前方向への荷重移動が起こります。

結果として前輪に重力がより掛かり摩擦が増えます。後輪では全く逆のことが起こります。こうなると簡単にいえば曲がりやすくなります。ちなみに車は加速している時には後ろ方向に荷重移動するために基本的に曲がりにくい「アンダーステア」の状態になります。

▼関連記事 荷重移動を意識するとできるすごいコーナリング

ブレーキで曲がるという考え方

例外はありますが車の後輪はただ前に転がるようにしかなっていません。前輪のように操舵して曲がりたい方向を向いて転がってくれる訳ではありませんから四輪車が曲がって走っている時にはかならず多少なりとも横滑りをしています。

カーブの中でもうこれ以上は曲がらなくてもいいという地点までは車は前荷重になっていた方が都合がよいのです。

この状態にするためには曲がり始めた時のブレーキコントロールが物をいうことになります。

▼関連記事 コーナーリングについてまとめた記事ができました

【上手な運転の仕方(コーナーリング編)】カーブをうまく走るコツ

ヒールアンドトゥで肝心なのはあくまでもブレーキ

アクセルをあおる操作はおまけのようなもの

自然にスピードが落ちてしまった場合ではなく、意図的な減速に伴ってヒールアンドトゥで回転を合わせたい時は要するにカーブの中でもうこれ以上曲がらなくてもいい地点(クリッピングポイント)に到達した時にスムースに加速に転じたい時です。このテクニックを使うときにはブレーキを踏みながらアクセルも操作する訳ですが、これは回転を合わせるためですからクラッチも切ることになります。

クラッチを切るのですから、回転を合わせようとアクセルをあおるのはコーナーリングを開始するターンインの前のみにすべきです。クラッチを切るとその間駆動力は車輪に伝わらなくなります。駆動力が車輪に伝わっていない状態は不安定な状態です。

実はターンインの最中であってもブレーキングはまだ続けたほうがよい場合が多いのです。ブレーキングを続けながらクリッピングポイントからの加速に備えたいためにヒールアンドトゥを使ってシフトダウンしたい訳です。ブレーキング中なのですからブレーキペダルは思いのままに踏めていることこそが肝心なのだということは分かって頂けると思います。

▼関連記事 MT車にとってのクラッチの意味はこちらから

▼関連記事その2 レーシングテクニックとしてコーナリングを捉える時の用語についてもコーナリングについてまとめた記事の中にあります

【上手な運転の仕方(コーナーリング編)】カーブをうまく走るコツ

ヒールアンドトゥは花形のテクニックながら

こうしてクラッチを操作できることがMT車の醍醐味で確かにヒールアンドトゥは花形のテクニックです。デュアルクラッチの変速がいかに早くてもMT車でなければ自分でこの操作はできません。

ただ恐らくより早く正確に、そして難なくレバーを操作するだけで同じことができてしまうのが何ともいえないところです。

筆者は自分もフォーミュラマシンで走ったことがあるF1サーキットでルイス・ハミルトンが低速になるヘアピンコーナーでコーナーリング中にパドルシフトでシフトダウンするビデオを見て「こんな操作ができてしまうのか」と驚いたことがあります。コンピューターでクラッチを操作することに関してはそれほど進歩しているのです。

▼関連記事 新しい技術によるシフトワークについてです

デュアルクラッチ(DCT)は何がすごいのか?もうMTは要らない?

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